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Polar blast envelops Midwest, strains aging infrastructure

Published
A bundled-up commuter makes their way through the loop early Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019 in Chicago.  A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures triggering widespread closures of schools and businesses.  (Rich Hein/Chicago Sun-Times via AP)

CHICAGO (AP) — A blast of polar air enveloped much of the Midwest on Wednesday, cracking train rails, breaking water pipes and straining electrical systems with some of the lowest temperatures in a generation.

The deep freeze closed schools and businesses and canceled flights in the nation's third-largest city, which was as cold as the Arctic. Heavily dressed repair crews hustled to keep utilities from failing.

Chicago dropped to a low of around minus 23 (minus 30 Celsius), slightly above the city's lowest-ever reading of minus 27 (minus 32 Celsius) from January 1985. Milwaukee had similar conditions. Minneapolis recorded minus 27 (minus 32 Celsius). Sioux Falls, South Dakota, saw minus 25 (minus 31 Celsius).

Wind chills reportedly made it feel like minus 50 (minus 45 Celsius) or worse. Downtown Chicago streets were largely deserted after most offices told employees to stay home. Trains and buses operated with few passengers. The hardiest commuters ventured out only after covering nearly every square inch of flesh against the extreme chill, which froze ice crystals on eyelashes and eyebrows in minutes.

The Postal Service took the rare step of suspending mail delivery in many places, and in southeastern Minnesota, even the snowplows were idled by the weather.

The bitter cold was the result of a split in the polar vortex, a mass of cold air that normally stays bottled up in the Arctic. The split allowed the air to spill much farther south than usual. In fact, Chicago was colder than the Canadian village of Alert, one of the world's most northerly inhabited places. Alert, which is 500 miles from the North Pole, reported a temperature that was a couple of degrees higher.

Officials in dozens of cities focused on protecting vulnerable people such as the homeless, seniors and those living in substandard housing.

At least eight deaths were linked to the system, including an elderly Illinois man who was found several hours after he fell trying to get into his home and a University of Iowa student found behind an academic hall several hours before dawn. Elsewhere, a man was struck by a snowplow in the Chicago area, a young couple's SUV struck another on a snowy road in northern Indiana and a Milwaukee man froze to death in a garage, authorities said.

Temperatures in Chicago were expected to tumble again into the minus 20s (minus 30s Celsius) early Thursday. Some isolated areas could see as low as minus 40 (minus 40 Celsius), according to the National Weather Service. Daytime highs could climb into the single digits before warming up to the comparatively balmy 20s (minus 7 to minus 2 Celsius) by Friday.

Aside from the safety risks and the physical discomfort, the system's icy grip also took a heavy toll on infrastructure, halting transportation, knocking out electricity and interrupting water service.

At least 2,700 flights were canceled nationwide, more than half of them at Chicago's two main airports. Another 1,800 flights scheduled for Thursday were also called off. Fuel lines at O'Hare Airport froze, forcing some planes to refuel elsewhere before continuing to their destination, an airport spokeswoman said.

Amtrak canceled scores of trains to and from Chicago, one of the nation's busiest rail hubs. Several families who intended to leave for Pennsylvania stood in ticket lines at Chicago's Union Station only to be told all trains were canceled until Friday.

"Had I known we'd be stranded here, we would have stayed in Mexico longer — where it was warmer," said Anna Ebersol, who was traveling with her two sons.

Chicago commuter trains that rely on electricity were also shut down after the metal wires that provide their power contracted, throwing off connections.

Ten diesel-train lines in the Metra network kept running, but crews had to heat vital switches with gas flames and watched for rails that were cracked or broken. When steel rails break or even crack, trains are automatically halted until they are diverted or the section of rail is repaired, Metra spokesman Michael Gillis explained.

A track in the Minneapolis light-rail system also cracked, forcing trains to share the remaining track for a few hours.

In Detroit, more than two dozen water mains froze. Customers were connected to other mains to keep water service from being interrupted, Detroit Water and Sewerage spokesman Bryan Peckinpaugh said.

Most mains were installed from the early 1900s to the 1950s. They are 5 to 6 feet underground and beneath the frost line, but that matters little when temperatures drop so dramatically, Peckinpaugh said.

On a typical winter day, the city has five to nine breaks, with each taking about three days to fix. But those repairs will take longer now with the large number of failures to fix, he added.

Detroit is in the second year of a $500 million program to rehab its water and sewer system. Last year, 25 miles of water mains were replaced.

"Water pipes are brittle. The more years they've gone through the freeze-thaw cycle," the greater the stress and strain, said Greg DiLoreto, a volunteer with the American Society of Civil Engineers and chair of its committee on American infrastructure.

Pipes laid a century ago have far exceeded the life span for which they were designed, said DiLoreto, who described the aging process as "living on borrowed time."

"When we put them in — back in the beginning — we never thought they would last this long," he said.

The same freeze-thaw cycle beats up concreate and asphalt roads and bridges, resulting in teeth-jarring potholes.

"You won't see them until it starts warming up and the trucks start rolling over the pavement again," said DiLoreto who is based in Portland, Oregon.

Thousands of utility customers were without electricity after high winds also caused trees and branches to fall into power lines, especially in the south Chicago suburbs. The ComEd utility in northern Illinois said crews restored power to more than 42,000 customers and were working to restore another 9,400.

About 5,000 Duke Energy customers in central Indiana lost power due to high heating demand that tripped circuits. Another outage affecting 1,000 customers was reported near Kokomo, Indiana, about 40 miles north of Indianapolis.

Low temperatures can cause overhead wires to contract, said Otto Lynch, chief executive of Power Line Systems in Madison, Wisconsin, and a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

"The tension goes way up the wire and gets tighter and causes poles to break," Lynch said. "The wires are usually not going to break. It's really dependent on how the line was designed. Fifty years ago, they didn't do a whole lot of engineering" for the coldest possible temperatures.

___

Williams reported from Detroit. Associated Press writers Caryn Rousseau in Chicago, Rick Callahan in Indianapolis, Mike Householder in Detroit, David Koenig in Dallas, Blake Nicholson in Bismarck, North Dakota, and Gretchen Ehlke in Milwaukee contributed to this story.

A bundled-up commuter makes their way through the loop early Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019 in Chicago.  A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures triggering widespread closures of schools and businesses.  (Rich Hein/Chicago Sun-Times via AP)
A bundled-up commuter makes their way through the loop early Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019 in Chicago.  A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures triggering widespread closures of schools and businesses.  (Rich Hein/Chicago Sun-Times via AP)
Lisa Laws is bundled up as she has a CTA bus to herself early Wednesday, Jan.  30, 2019.  The cold struck Chicago transportation Wednesday morning, with more than 1,600 canceled flights and limited rail service.  (Rich Hein/Chicago Sun-Times via AP)
Ice covers the Chicago River Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019, in Chicago. A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures triggering widespread closures of schools and businesses.  (AP Photo/Teresa Crawford)
A lone commuter waits for their bus in Chicago on Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019, in Chicago. A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures triggering widespread closures of schools and businesses.  (AP Photo/Teresa Crawford)
A lone pedestrian crosses the Chicago River early Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019.  A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures. (Rich Hein/Chicago Sun-Times via AP)
A man walks along Lake Michigan Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019 in Milwaukee. Temperatures were sub-zero and wind chills were -50 degrees. (AP Photo/Jeffrey Phelps)
Wind blows snow along a road Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019 in Saukville, Wis. as Temperatures were sub-zero and wind chills were -50 degrees. (AP Photo/Jeffrey Phelps)
An appropriate billboard is seen in Port Washington, Wis. Wednesday, Jan 30. 2019. A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures. (AP Photo/Jeffrey Phelps)
A young boy tosses a chunck of snow into Lake Michigan Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019 in Milwaukee. Temperatures were sub-zero and wind chills were -50 degrees. (AP Photo/Jeffrey Phelps)
A cyclist decked out in cold weather gear rides past the city skyline and a frozen Bde Maka Ska in Minneapolis. A blast of polar air enveloped much of the Midwest on Wednesday, closing schools and businesses and straining infrastructure across the Rust Belt with some of the lowest temperatures in a generation. (Anthony Souffle/Star Tribune via AP)
Commuters braves the wind and snow in frigid weather, Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019, in Cincinnati. The extreme cold and record-breaking temperatures are crawling into a swath of states spanning from North Dakota to Missouri and into Ohio after a powerful snowstorm pounded the region earlier this week. (AP Photo/John Minchillo)
Commuters braves the wind and snow in frigid weather, Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019, in Cincinnati. The extreme cold and record-breaking temperatures are crawling into a swath of states spanning from North Dakota to Missouri and into Ohio after a powerful snowstorm pounded the region earlier this week. (AP Photo/John Minchillo)
A lone commuter waits for their bus in Chicago on Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019, in Chicago. A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures triggering widespread closures of schools and businesses.  (AP Photo/Teresa Crawford)
A lone commuter waits for their bus in Chicago on Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019, in Chicago. A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures triggering widespread closures of schools and businesses. (AP Photo/Teresa Crawford)
Lisa Laws is bundled up as she has a CTA bus to herself early Wednesday, Jan.  30, 2019.  The cold struck Chicago transportation Wednesday morning, with more than 1,600 canceled flights and limited rail service.  (Rich Hein/Chicago Sun-Times via AP)
Lisa Laws is bundled up as she has a CTA bus to herself early Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019. The cold struck Chicago transportation Wednesday morning, with more than 1,600 canceled flights and limited rail service. (Rich Hein/Chicago Sun-Times via AP)
A bundled-up commuter makes their way through the loop early Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019 in Chicago.  A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures triggering widespread closures of schools and businesses.  (Rich Hein/Chicago Sun-Times via AP)
A bundled-up commuter makes their way through the loop early Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019 in Chicago. A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures triggering widespread closures of schools and businesses. (Rich Hein/Chicago Sun-Times via AP)
Gary Verstegen clears a sidewalk as a winter storm moves through Wisconsin on Monday, Jan. 28, 2019, in Little Chute, Wis. (William Glasheen/The Post-Crescent via AP)
Gary Verstegen clears a sidewalk as a winter storm moves through Wisconsin on Monday, Jan. 28, 2019, in Little Chute, Wis. (William Glasheen/The Post-Crescent via AP)
Commuters braves the wind and snow in frigid weather, Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019, in Cincinnati. The extreme cold and record-breaking temperatures are crawling into a swath of states spanning from North Dakota to Missouri and into Ohio after a powerful snowstorm pounded the region earlier this week. (AP Photo/John Minchillo)
Commuters braves the wind and snow in frigid weather, Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019, in Cincinnati. The extreme cold and record-breaking temperatures are crawling into a swath of states spanning from North Dakota to Missouri and into Ohio after a powerful snowstorm pounded the region earlier this week. (AP Photo/John Minchillo)
A cyclist decked out in cold weather gear rides past the city skyline and a frozen Bde Maka Ska in Minneapolis. A blast of polar air enveloped much of the Midwest on Wednesday, closing schools and businesses and straining infrastructure across the Rust Belt with some of the lowest temperatures in a generation. (Anthony Souffle/Star Tribune via AP)
A cyclist decked out in cold weather gear rides past the city skyline and a frozen Bde Maka Ska in Minneapolis. A blast of polar air enveloped much of the Midwest on Wednesday, closing schools and businesses and straining infrastructure across the Rust Belt with some of the lowest temperatures in a generation. (Anthony Souffle/Star Tribune via AP)
A young boy tosses a chunck of snow into Lake Michigan Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019 in Milwaukee. Temperatures were sub-zero and wind chills were -50 degrees. (AP Photo/Jeffrey Phelps)
A young boy tosses a chunck of snow into Lake Michigan Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019 in Milwaukee. Temperatures were sub-zero and wind chills were -50 degrees. (AP Photo/Jeffrey Phelps)
A man walks along Lake Michigan Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019 in Milwaukee. Temperatures were sub-zero and wind chills were -50 degrees. (AP Photo/Jeffrey Phelps)
A man walks along Lake Michigan Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019 in Milwaukee. Temperatures were sub-zero and wind chills were -50 degrees. (AP Photo/Jeffrey Phelps)
A bundled-up commuter makes their way through the loop early Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019 in Chicago.  A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures triggering widespread closures of schools and businesses.  (Rich Hein/Chicago Sun-Times via AP)
A bundled-up commuter makes their way through the loop early Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019 in Chicago. A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures triggering widespread closures of schools and businesses. (Rich Hein/Chicago Sun-Times via AP)
A lone pedestrian crosses the Chicago River early Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019.  A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures. (Rich Hein/Chicago Sun-Times via AP)
A lone pedestrian crosses the Chicago River early Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019. A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures. (Rich Hein/Chicago Sun-Times via AP)
Ice forms along the shore of Lake Michigan before sunrise, Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019, in Chicago. A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures on Wednesday, triggering widespread closures of schools and businesses, and prompting the U.S. Postal Service to take the rare step of suspending mail delivery to a wide swath of the region. (AP Photo/Kiichiro Sato)
Ice forms along the shore of Lake Michigan before sunrise, Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019, in Chicago. A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures on Wednesday, triggering widespread closures of schools and businesses, and prompting the U.S. Postal Service to take the rare step of suspending mail delivery to a wide swath of the region. (AP Photo/Kiichiro Sato)
Commuters braves the wind and snow in frigid weather, Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019, in Cincinnati. The extreme cold and record-breaking temperatures are crawling into a swath of states spanning from North Dakota to Missouri and into Ohio after a powerful snowstorm pounded the region earlier this week. (AP Photo/John Minchillo)
Commuters braves the wind and snow in frigid weather, Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019, in Cincinnati. The extreme cold and record-breaking temperatures are crawling into a swath of states spanning from North Dakota to Missouri and into Ohio after a powerful snowstorm pounded the region earlier this week. (AP Photo/John Minchillo)
Minneapolis Police Sgt. Grant Snyder, right, hands a cup of hot chocolate to Dawone Boclair outside the public library on Hennepin Avenue in downtown Minneapolis, as the temperatures dipped well below freezing, Tuesday, Jan. 29, 2019. Snyder will be hitting the streets Tuesday and Wednesday night during the height of the big chill to check on the welfare of homeless people who haven't made it into a shelter. (Aaron Lavinsky/Star Tribune via AP)
Minneapolis Police Sgt. Grant Snyder, right, hands a cup of hot chocolate to Dawone Boclair outside the public library on Hennepin Avenue in downtown Minneapolis, as the temperatures dipped well below freezing, Tuesday, Jan. 29, 2019. Snyder will be hitting the streets Tuesday and Wednesday night during the height of the big chill to check on the welfare of homeless people who haven't made it into a shelter. (Aaron Lavinsky/Star Tribune via AP)
Ice forms along the shore of Lake Michigan before sunrise, Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019, in Chicago. A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures. (AP Photo/Kiichiro Sato)
Ice forms along the shore of Lake Michigan before sunrise, Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019, in Chicago. A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures. (AP Photo/Kiichiro Sato)
A bundled-up commuter makes their way through the loop early Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019 in Chicago.  A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures triggering widespread closures of schools and businesses.  (Rich Hein/Chicago Sun-Times via AP)
A bundled-up commuter makes their way through the loop early Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019 in Chicago. A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures triggering widespread closures of schools and businesses. (Rich Hein/Chicago Sun-Times via AP)
Ice covers the Chicago River Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019, in Chicago. A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures triggering widespread closures of schools and businesses.  (AP Photo/Teresa Crawford)
Ice covers the Chicago River Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019, in Chicago. A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures triggering widespread closures of schools and businesses. (AP Photo/Teresa Crawford)
An appropriate billboard is seen in Port Washington, Wis. Wednesday, Jan 30. 2019. A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures. (AP Photo/Jeffrey Phelps)
An appropriate billboard is seen in Port Washington, Wis. Wednesday, Jan 30. 2019. A deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures. (AP Photo/Jeffrey Phelps)
Morning commuters face a tough slog on Wacker Drive in Chicago, Monday, Jan. 28, 2019. (Rich Hein/Chicago Sun-Times via AP)
Morning commuters face a tough slog on Wacker Drive in Chicago, Monday, Jan. 28, 2019. (Rich Hein/Chicago Sun-Times via AP)
A woman watches the sun rise at the harbor in Port Washington, Wis. on Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019, as a deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures. (AP Photo/Jeffrey Phelps)
A woman watches the sun rise at the harbor in Port Washington, Wis. on Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019, as a deadly arctic deep freeze enveloped the Midwest with record-breaking temperatures. (AP Photo/Jeffrey Phelps)
Wind blows snow along a road Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019 in Saukville, Wis. as Temperatures were sub-zero and wind chills were -50 degrees. (AP Photo/Jeffrey Phelps)
Wind blows snow along a road Wednesday, Jan. 30, 2019 in Saukville, Wis. as Temperatures were sub-zero and wind chills were -50 degrees. (AP Photo/Jeffrey Phelps)